Muscles:  Location and Terminology

Description and Function


Muscles and their involvement in hockey: 

ANTERIOR VIEW: Lower body 

1- Illiopsoas: Primary function 
- skating: recovery phase (striding and crossovers) 
- foot speed 

2 - Extensors: Primary function 
- skating: turn-out and extension 

3 - Adductors: Primary function 
- skating: recovery phase 
- inside leg extension on crossovers, agility 

4 - Abbuctors: Primary function 
- Striding: extension of the leg 
- agility and lateral mobility 

5 - Sartorius: Primary function 
- skating: crossovers, pivots 

Quadriceps Group 

6a - Rectus Femoris: Primary function 
- skating: transitional stride and in extension 
- tight turns and crossovers 
- quick starting and stopping 

6b - Vastus Intermedius: Primary function 
- skating: Origin of stride and Transitional striding phase 
- Crossovers, tight turns 
- Quick starting and stopping 

6c - Vastus Medialis: Primary function 
- skating: Beginning of stride. Low position. Critical to good knee flexion 

6d - Vastus Lateralis: Primary function 
- skating: end of striding phase on turn-out. 

7 - Tibialis Anterior: Primary function 
- recovery of foot after extension, heel cuts 
- driving to the net, stability 


1 - Lower Back Stabilizers: Primary function 
- skating balance and body alignment 


2a - Gluteus Medius: Primary function 
- skating: Striding and extension 

2b - Gluteus Minimus: Primary function 
- skating: Striding and extension 

2c - Gluteus Maximus: Primary function 
- skating: Thrusting 

Hamstring Group 

3a - Semitendonous: Primary function 
- skating: Recovery phase 

3b - Bicep Femoris: Primary function 
- skating: recovery phase 

3c - Semimembranosus: Primary function 
- skating: recovery phase 

4 - Gastronemius: Primary function 
- skating: thrusting power at end of stride 
- extends foot at end of stride. Critical to maximize speed 
- agility and lateral mobility 
- critical element in backward skating extension ("C"-cuts) 

5 - Soleus: Primary function 
- critical at origin of stride. 
- begins extension of foot 

6 - Achilles Tendon: Primary function 
- skating 
- extension of foot 
- poor flexibility effects ankle flexion which limits knee bend and stride length 


1a - Anterior Deltoid: Primary function 
- Shooting (slap shot, wrist shot, snap shot) 
- passing 
- checking skills (pushing action) as in pinning the man, sealing him out, containing the man. 
- assisting in skating stride. 

1b - Lateral Deltoid: (previous page) 

2 - Pectoralis Major: Primary function 
- checking skills (pushing action) as in pinning the man, sealing him outs, containing the 
man, pushing him off the puck. 
- shooting (slap shot, wrist and snap shots 

3 - Seratus Anterior: Primary function 
- Shooting (slap shot, snap shot) 
- controlling the stick (face-offs, etc) 

4 - Biceps Brachii: Primary function 
- shooting 
- checking skills (pulling action), pinning the man, clutch and grab, 
- controlling the stick (face-offs) 

5 - Brachioradialis: Primary function 
- shooting 
- stick control (checking, face-offs) 

6 - External Obliques: Primary function 
- shooting (twisting action - slap shot) 
- skating (rotation of the upper body) as in pivoting, turning, etc. 

7a - Transverse Abdominus: Primary function 
- shooting 
- skating 

7b - Rectus Abdominus: Primary function 
- shooting 
- skating



Copyright 1996 by Ron Johnson. All rights reserved.